The importance of climate efforts before 2020
The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. To that end, countries are working to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, adapt to climate change and accelerate sustainable development. While developed countries are taking the lead, all countries are enhancing efforts to address climate change. The provision of financial, technological and capacity-building support to developing countries, to enable them to accelerate their national action, plays a key role in this regard. In this context, all countries share the view that pre-2020 implementation and ambition are of utmost importance. They also noted that enhanced pre-2020 ambition can lay a solid foundation for enhanced post-2020 ambition. Building on this, COP 23 decided to convene stocktakes on pre-2020 implementation and ambition at its 24th (2018) and 25th (2019) sessions. Furthermore, in 2018 the Talanoa Dialogue will consider the efforts of Parties in relation to action and support prior to 2020.
Mitigation efforts prior to pre-2020
Prior to 2020, developed countries are leading global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009 and 2010, they committed to implementing quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020. They also agreed to increase their reporting of progress towards these targets. In 2012, countries adopted an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, for a second commitment period for 2013 to 2020. This is known as the Doha Amendment. It includes quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol for developed countries which are Parties to the Protocol. Find out more here, including information on of the status of ratification.
Developing countries are also stepping up their efforts to reduce emissions. Since 2009, they have been developing nationally appropriate mitigation actions in line with their national development objectives.
To support countries with reducing emissions, countries resolved to strengthen the technical examination process on mitigation for the period 2016 to 2020. The technical examination process explores high-potential policies, practices and technologies that can increase the mitigation ambition of pre-2020 climate action.
Enhancing the provision of support
Through the UNFCCC, the global community supports developing countries to enhance their efforts to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and reduce greenhouse gases. Climate finance plays a key role. The Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility, as the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism, are multilateral financial funds that provide financial support to developing countries to enhance their climate actions. Furthermore, in 2010 developed countries agreed, in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, to a goal of mobilizing jointly USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries for climate action.
Technological and capacity-building support also play key roles. On technology, in 2010 countries created the Technology Mechanism which aims to enhance the development and transfer of climate technologies to developing countries. The mechanism consists of two bodies: the Technology Executive Committee, which is the policy arm, and the Climate Technology Centre and Network, which is the implementation arm. Further, information on climate technology may be found here.
On capacity-building, in 2001 countries adopted two frameworks that address the needs, conditions and priorities of developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The frameworks provide a set of guiding principles and approaches to capacity-building. Countries also established the Durban Forum on Capacity-building. The forum is an annual event which brings together stakeholders involved in building the capacity of developing countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Its meetings are means to improve the monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity-building efforts.
Roundtable on pre-2020 implementation and ambition
Stocktake on Pre-2020 implementation and ambition at COP 25
Stocktake on Pre-2020 implementation and ambition at COP 24