The Paris Agreement recognizes that developing countries need support to help them achieve the agreement’s objectives. This includes increasing cooperation on technology development and transfer at different stages of the technology cycle.
The support needs of developing countries may take on many different scales and forms, depending on their national circumstances. It can include financial, capacity-building and technological support. There are also many channels for providing support, including bilateral, regional and multilateral. This page highlights some of the UNFCCC multilateral channels which may support developing countries to enhance climate technology development and transfer.
Established in 2010, the Technology Mechanism plays a central role in facilitating support to developing countries on climate technology development and transfer. This includes support for countries to implement their nationally determined contributions. Read more about the Technology Mechanism.
The UNFCCC Financial Mechanism facilitates the provision of financial resources to developing countries through its two operating entities, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The GEF currently provides support to climate technology activities through its Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer. Many of the climate projects and programmes that the GCF supports also have technology elements.
To ensure coherent support for and enhance the provision of climate technology financing, the Technology Executive Committee (TEC), the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), the GCF and the GEF, are working to further elaborate linkages between the Technology Mechanism and the Finance Mechanism.
The two bodies of the Technology Mechanism, the TEC and the CTCN, work to provide capacity-building and technical support to developing countries on climate technology matters. The TEC analyses key climate technology issues and develops key messages and recommendations on policies that support countries to enhance climate efforts. Recently, the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) worked with key partners to develop guidance on preparing technology action plans (TAPs). It aims to support countries to develop TAPs which lead to climate technology implementation.
The CTCN facilitates the provision of information, training and support to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to identify technology options, make technology choices and operate, maintain and adapt technology. It periodically holds regional training and capacity-building workshops for national designated entities. It also focuses especially on supporting least developed countries through a dedicated incubator programme.
More broadly, the UNFCCC process also facilitates the provision of capacity-building support.
Addressing climate change is impossible without low-emission and climate resilient technologies. The same holds true for achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Within the wider efforts on the SDGs there is a strong focus on the role of technology and how to support developing countries to enhance their actions. Read about the United Nations Technology Facilitation Mechanism and the United Nations Technology Bank for Least Developed Countries.
Outside the UNFCCC there are a plethora of activities, initiatives and organizations working to strengthen cooperation on climate technology development and transfer. Recently the secretariat has mapped the climate technology activities and initiatives under and outside the Convention relevant to the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
Organizations that work on climate technology activities include the following:
Africa Renewable Energy Initiative
Climate Technology Initiative (CTI)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
International Energy Agency (IEA)
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
Clean Energy Info Portal Reegle
Renewable Energy Policy Network Ren 21
The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
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